Wednesday, December 19, 2012

What is really happening at Preston?


In a situation where benefits are being decimated, estates cleared, the NHS privatised and urban planning regulations torn up, it's easy for politicians (and developers) to claim that architecture is a side-issue, of interest only to aesthetes (probably southern). So it might seem that the campaign to save Preston's Bus Station from demolition is a distraction from the issue of austerity and what the response to it should be - but, in fact, if there's a better illustration of how austerity works and how hopeless the Labour Party have been in opposing it, I can think of few better examples. But, first things first - the building itself. Preston Bus Station was designed in the late 1960s by local, later to be international architects Building Design Partnership. 'Bus Station' hardly covers what the building is. What we have here is a Bus Station and multi-storey car park, with a vast, airport-lounge like interior boasting cafes, newsagent, hairdresser (!) and so forth - a Public Building in the truest sense, taking a mundane thing and making it as comfortable and pleasing as possible, lack of maintenance notwithstanding. The finishes of the building - the wood, tiles and metal of the interior, the op-art concrete waves of the facade - are of the very highest quality. Nothing today, bar the most expensive 'signature' architecture, is this well-made. But being a good Public Building is not going to do a structure many favours today.



I've been trying to puzzle out what is exactly happening with the Bus Station on Procrastinator and to be honest I'm still none the wiser. For most of the 2000s the proposal was to demolish the station and replace it - and the surrounding area of the '60s Markets and office buildings built at the same time by RMJM and BDP - with Tithebarn, a 'mall without walls'. Always a strange idea in a declining city that already has two large malls, Tithebarn was an early casualty of the recession, effectively cancelled in 2011 when John Lewis pulled out. That seemed to give the place a reprieve - earlier this year, at a public tour and talk on the Bus Station, I spoke to a few local politicians and councillors*, who said that they were keen to keep the building - the only obstacle was Lancashire County Council, who wanted a new bus station built by the Railway Station. This idea, that it's in 'the wrong place', comes up a lot, although it's puzzling - it's ten minutes walk from the railway station, but right next to the Guildhall, the Markets, the magnificent Harris Museum and Art Gallery and the shopping centres, basically everything a non-Prestonian might want to see or do in Preston. Nonetheless, Lancs Council are apparently adamant that they will not fund a refurbishment (though it may be cheaper than demolition), so if the current building is demolished, there will (eventually) be a new bus station and LCC will (probably) be funding it. Here is what they want it to look like.


(image via Dominic Roberts)

Now you've got your breath back, I should point out that though this is what Lancs County Council want, they are not planning to do this anytime soon - they are not demanding the Bus Station be cleared out of the way. Why would they, when they want to build it somewhere else entirely? So the reason given is the cost of maintaining the current Bus Station. A recent costing puts this at £23 million, a bizarre figure - earlier estimates put it at £4 million, and even councillors concede the figure is probably around £10 million. £4 million is a lot of money, particularly when council budgets are being crushed in Eric Pickles' iron fist, but the fact is that the Bus Station costs £300,000 a year to run. Local socialist councillor Michael Lavalette estimates that a 50p increase in car park costs would pay for the building's annual maintenance. So all this suggests that someone, somewhere, wants a prohibitive figure put on the building so that they can make the we-are-protecting-services-not-buildings-for-ponces argument, to get rid of the Bus Station ASAP. What for, though? 


What is key here is that Preston City Council also voted to demolish RMJM's 1960s Market building adjacent. That is, the other council-owned part of the former Tithebarn site. Like the Bus Station, although not quite as architecturally stunning, the market is a good piece of civic design, and it is well-used. Nonetheless, the Preston City Council meeting that decided to demolish the Bus Station and markets met for a paltry 30 minutes. I'm sure a lot of people in the city and outside of it have talked more about the Bus Station on an average Monday than that. So it seems pretty obvious that a fix is in. What sort of a fix? Well, what the council want in place of the Bus Station, for the moment, is a surface car park. Given that there's already a cordon sanitaire of dead space between the Bus Station and the ring road, that means a vast, exurban empty space in the middle of the city, to deliberately create the sort of vast, anti-urban car-centred wasteland that has destroyed Southampton - only without the actual shopping mall those spaces serve. The city's idea appears to be - as far as I can tell - that they will carry out the programme of demolition that was meant to precede the Tithebarn scheme, giving them a big empty space that they can then sell to a developer at that mythical moment, When The Market Picks Up. That is, Preston is choosing to inflict on itself what Bradford now has, a huge bloody hole where it used to have a city centre. This, incidentally, is also what happened to Portsmouth City Council in 2004, when it demolished the Tricorn Centre, after a similar campaign that pit bluff, don't-know-a-lot-but-I-know-what-I-like councillors against local and national architecture enthusiasts, who proposed several plausible schemes for refurbishment, redesign and renewal to no avail. The Tricorn was replaced with a surface car park, on which a 'Northern Quarter' was meant to be built, when The Market was most definitely Up. 8 years later it hasn't been, but maybe When The Market Picks Up....


This is the fate that Preston is choosing to inflict on itself. If it's only a matter of Lancashire County Council's hostility, why are Preston so keen to frame it as being about the Bus Station's allegedly exorbitant expense? Unlike similar acts of philistinism, like Tower Hamlets' sell-offs of Robin Hood Gardens or Henry Moore's 'Old Flo', or Birmingham's flogging off of sites occupied by John Madin's Library and NatWest tower, there are no buyers waiting in the wings. Unlike the Tricorn, the building is structurally sound, it works, and it is popular, winning the Lancashire Evening Post's poll for best building in the city - no mean feat when the Harris is nearby. Like the Tricorn, there are several plausible plans for its redesign and reuse, to sort out its problems with circulation, its excessive size, and so forth. Preston and its architecture have been, through the council's philistinism, in the news for the first time since, well, the 1960s. Every council wants an Iconic, nationally recognised building. Preston now has one. So why not appeal to Lancashire County Council's good sense, and mount a council-sponsored campaign to save the building? It still seems like the most plausible reason is that they really do want to replace the Bus Station with a surface car park, in the hope that one day a developer will want to build them a mall. After (or rather during) the massive game-changer that is the financial crisis and the obvious bankruptcy of cities built on debt, shopping and driving in and out, Labour councillors - in both Lancashire and Preston - still can't think of anything their cities might be other than shopping centres. In fact, austerity now gives them an even better alibi. Can't you see - we've got no choice...

Petition to save Preston Bus Station is here.

*one of whom told me a story about this delightful new hotel, that he'd been the only councillor to vote against it when it was in planning. When asked why, he said 'because it's a terrible piece of architecture'. He was told 'that's nothing to do with us'.

92 Comments:

Blogger Liam Pennington said...

A great post.

The paltry 30 minutes meeting was the Cabinet only, and was live-streamed. There was a public audience of 15 people, and no questions permitted.

You're absolutely right on so many points. The Bus Station is not structurally unsound, and the cost of refurbishment has gone up and down more times than I can recall.

The initial proposal was to build a new station 250m further south, approximately 10m closer to the railway station.

The current proposal is to build a new station........on the same site.

Preston's councillors have back tracked a little, I notice, in recent days. They talk about the station being "the heart of the City", for example, and have decided to ask another outside body to double check the figures. They've talked of a mysterious, anonymous "wealthy Lancashire business man" wanting to save the structure, although that was only mentioned at the meeting at the very end, like a pathetic attempt at a rabbit out of a hat sort of thing.

I notice that one of the many unaccountable business groups/panels involved in the issue decry Prestonians going to Manchester or Liverpool for shopping rather than Preston, and therefore there needs to be a massive demolition programme to encourage economic growth. I can't even begin to tell you how much is wrong with that....

4:43 pm  
Blogger tony said...

Hi Owen

Would love to use your bus station story on Blog Preston to share with our readers. Is this possible?

Tony Worrall
Blog Preston | www.blogpreston.co.uk | @blogpreston on Twitter
A hub of information and views about the city of Preston in Lancashire, UK.

10:09 pm  
Blogger Ian Waites said...

Great to see your blog underway again, Owen. It’s curious how, just as the whole post-war project of Local Authority run, Public service and provision is being shafted once and for all by this callous and venal Tory government, the type of architecture that defined this project is also being discredited and disappeared with a shocking, philistine finality. This here is The Guildhall in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, a nice piece of provincial modernism designed in 1966 by Neil Taylor of Fisher, Hollingsworth and Partners, as the new offices of what became the West Lindsey District Council. The WLDC abandoned the building in 2008 for some design ‘n’ build offices (that are reputedly falling to bits) by a new shopping centre. The Guildhall will probably be demolished. This, and what’s happening to Preston Bus Station is bloody frustrating to say the very least.

11:39 am  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Have you ever been to preston bus station? It stinks, its dingy, its freezing cold, in the evening it is inhabited by drug-addicts and the like. Everything that can be vandalized has been, and no effort has been made to rectify any issues such as tiles falling off walls, broken seats, and did I mention the smell?

The taxi rank was a failure from the outset, and has been left to rot for years (an eyesore and wasted space) access from the city centre via subways -did I mention the horrendous smell- and every Prestonion knows not to go through there after dark!

The car park is very well used - by 10am you will be cruising the top 2 floors for spaces, but leave early if you value your car because break-ins and vandalism are regular occurrences even if you can face the overwhelming stench, discarded needles, and unsavory characters who wander the stairwells of an evening.

And I don't care how many pictures you post of the bus station on a sunny day from a flattering angle. The place is very depressing environment on a winter morning.

So if you ever find an airport with a lounge like that let me know and I'll avoid it like the plague. Yes its exterior is iconic, but the appearance of a public building isn't a reason to keep or destroy it, the practicality and functionality is.

Preston council cannot run a pissup in a brewery (or a show in a theatre) so they are clearly never going to make the bus station, car park, guild hall, charter theatre, guild arcade, or markets pay their way. Sad but true.

I love all these buildings warts and all but a pragmatic decision has to be made.

Guild hall employee of many years.

5:50 pm  
Anonymous Ismail said...

This blog is an accurate representation of the mismanagement by the local authority of what should be seen as an asset to the City.
All buildings in some way, shape or form have to be reinvented to meet changing demands, the Bus Station is no different.
With a little imagination to reconfigure the buildings use and its confines, a case for investment can be made which can help attract partners to the city and this site.
Yes this is a very large development site in the city and it has considerable value in monetary terms, however, the path which is being taken will lead to a 'hole' or a building site in the heart of the city which isn't going to be developed any time soon.
As a Proud Prestonian, I have seen the rise of the town in terms of its economic strengths through successive recessions and this is what attracted Grosvenor to the table in the first place.
If the Council stepped back and were willing to review how they can still deliver a regenerated Preston without wholesale demolition or plundering of assets, they would be able to acknowledge that, slowly, over time, in a phased manner, regenerate the city to achieve a positive and lasting legacy.
It seems all too easy to say demolition is the 'cheap' and only alternative to the problem, but factor in other incidentals and it will be all too costly and we'd have lost a bus station and car parking to boot.
Futhermore, you can't put a price on a blight which affects subsequent investment in and around the city which is where this decision is likely to lead.
I wouldn't support listing the building as this may then scupper the possible 'reinvention' of the site even though it would help reduce the VAT burden.
The issues which surrounds the safe running and management of the buildings are all issues which can be addressed and are not insurmountable and should not deter the public from supporting its retention.

6:37 pm  
Anonymous David said...

Inhabited by drug addicts? Tiles falling off the walls? Break-ins and vandalism are regular occurrences for people who leave their cars?

Wow - sounds like you'll have something to back all that up right? The miracle is that I've not seen a single tile missing from the building which is good considering how negelected it's been for +40 years.

As for the parking, I've never ever had a single problem nor am I aware of anyone that has. Do you have any local paper reports of such incidents?

Sure the building is far from perfect and has a few problems but they could be resolved with measures far less extreme than demolition. When they knock it down and build a smaller bus station and flat tarmacced car park in its place do you think people will stop weeing? Maybe I'll go for a wee on the new bus station and you'll call for that to be knocked down too - maybe weeing on buildings we don't like is a great way to get rid of them!

10:38 am  
Blogger Sam PV said...

Good points, but mention should be made that central govt has twice blocked the decision to list the building against the recommendation of English Heritage. The listing system is there to protect nationally important buildings, which this clearly is - if the building was listed it would be a very different story.

10:27 pm  
Blogger Liam Pennington said...

Not a single frame of glass is broken
Not a single tile missing
Not a single crumb of concrete flaking away

The only thing broken is the Council tasked with looking after it.

6:26 pm  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

First they came for the bus station,
then the Guild Hall...
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-lancashire-20985235

4:51 pm  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Mr Rankin said:
"We are actually trying to improve Preston although I
can understand people feeling that we are wrecking the city. I didn't come into politics to demolish things..."

4:54 pm  
Anonymous Heri said...

I liked this post nice ........

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Blogger Mary Ruthrina said...

I really wish that Preston is okay and wish that they would continuously give their tourists the best holidays ever. hotels near preston are pretty awesome.

12:56 pm  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

It matters little about the bus station being demolished and a new one built. The powers that be, will be in exactly the same situation in 40 years as they are now. After 4 decades of neglect and underinvestment in maintaining the new structure, they will say that it will be too expensive to repair and must be demolished. Thus the Council will consolidate its tightwad and polarised uselessness.

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What really happened in Preston? I hope what happened there more and make the region increasingly prosperous always .....

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